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With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry, the demand for lithium-ion batteries is still strong.

the French environment and Energy Administration (ademe) issued a report, analyzing the surplus supply and demand dynamics of lithium products under different scenarios of global electrification in 2050. The agency usually requires experts whose brightness change does not exceed 1.5 to believe that only when the penetration rate of electric vehicles reaches 75%, there will be a real risk of a significant decline in the safety margin of lithium supply

although lithium-ion batteries will have the largest share of future development, lithium supply may not even become a serious problem. By 2050, according to a recent study published and the critical lithium supply French environment and energy management agency (ademe)

the experts of this institution put forward several ideas according to the carbon dioxide emission reduction targets related to transportation and the public policies related to electric vehicles. They claim that even under the most optimistic scenario, the risk of lithium shortage seems limited from a geological point of view. "However, the change in the long-term equilibrium of the commodity market shows that the lack of geological criticality of resources cannot mask all types of vulnerability, whether economic, industrial, geopolitical or environmental," they added

on the contrary, they believe that the real problem may be that there are too few participants in the global lithium industry and their oligarchy. The report points out that China's emerging enterprises, such as FMC and abemare (operating in Chile and Argentina respectively), SMQ in Chile and Tianqi and Gan Feng, which are headquartered in the United States, are the three giants in the history of the industry, with a total market share of more than 50%. In addition, according to the authors of the report, there are so-called primary mining companies whose role is to identify reserves and study the feasibility of mining

compared with historical participants, it is difficult for new entrants to obtain financing sources and gain exposure in the market. A large number of joint ventures and cooperation between enterprises managing different reserves show the attractiveness of the current lithium market and the desire to expand their business to a global scale. Producers tend to integrate into the value chain from extraction to final compound production

according to ademe analysts, the global lithium market is divided into the Atlantic market and the Asian market. The former is mainly supplied by South American manufacturers to the European and American markets, and the latter is mainly supplied by Chinese domestic industries and Australian companies. The report points out that in 2016, Australia, Chile, Argentina and Chile accounted for about 80% of the global lithium production, of which Australia was the largest producer

the report points out that the lithium triangle covering Argentina, Bolivia and Chile is the strategic axis of the global lithium market in the future. Although there is still great uncertainty between the economic opening and the implementation of radical trade policies, the triangle still exists. As for China, it is also considered as a strategic country for lithium supply. According to the study, the Chinese government's policy on lithium is similar to the U.S. policy on oil in some aspects. According to the study, the growing presence of Chinese enterprises in lithium producing countries indicates the idea of a lithium agreement similar to the Quincy agreement. The Quincy agreement provides us military protection for the Saudi royal family in exchange for oil

according to this study, most transactions in the lithium market are conducted in the form of one to three 1-year sample supply contracts with fixed size and shape. Although the duration of the contract has increased in recent years due to the fluctuation of lithium prices, please refer to the original link: carbon nanotube'sticks'make stronger, lighter composites The trend of increase leads to the increase of index terms

the report also emphasizes that the price of lithium has risen sharply in recent years due to the strong demand for lithium-ion batteries in the electric vehicle industry. The report also pointed out that "this imbalance forces electric vehicle manufacturers to purchase lithium contracts at very high prices to ensure the safety of supply." However, the study authors stressed that the cost of lithium may only account for about 2% of the total cost of lithium-ion batteries

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